For the welfare of minorities then Prime Minister of India Rajiv Gandhi declared a 15-Point Programme among which seven points were to control the communal riots. That 15-Point Programme was not aimed to eradicate the educational backwardness of Muslims, although educational backwardness of Muslims is the only cause of their socio, economical and political backwardness.
The present Prime Minister's New 15-Point Programme aims at providing equal development opportunities to minorities with definite goals to be achieved in a specific time frame.
Objectives of the programme are:
Enhancing opportunities for education.
Ensuring an equitable share for minorities in economic activities and employment, through existing and new schemes, enhanced credit support for self-employment, and recruitment to State and Central Govt. jobs.
Improving the conditions of living of minorities by ensuring an appropriate share for them in infrastructure development schemes.
Prevention and control of communal disharmony and violence.
This programme provides that wherever possible, 15% targets and outlays under various schemes should be earmarked for minorities.
The schemes amenable to such earmarking are:
Enhancing opportunities for Education:
Equitable availability of ICDS Services: Integrated Child Development Services through Anganwadies.
Improving access to school Education: Sarva Shiksha Abhiyan (SSA), Kasturba Gandhi Balika Vidyalaya Scheme (KGBVS) and other similar Govt. schemes.
Equitable Share in Economic Activities and Employment:
Self Employment and Wage Employment for the poor.
(a) Swarnjayanti Gram Swarozgar Yojana (SJSY)
(b) Swarnjayanti Shahri Rozgar Yojana (SJSRY)
(c) Sampurn Grameen Rozgar Yojana (SGRY)
Upgradation of skills through technical training. New Industrail Training Institution (ITI) and upgradation of existing ITIs.
Enhanced Credit Support for Economic Activities.
(a) Bank Credit under priority sector lending.
Improving the conditions of living of Minorities:
1) Equitable share in rural housing scheme Indira Awas Yojana (IAY)
2) Improvement in condition of slums inhabited by minority communities.
Integrated Housing and Slum Development Programme (IHSDP) Basic Services for Urban Poor (BSUP) under Jawaharlal Nehru National Urban Renewal Mission (JNNURM).
It has been observed that many of the centrally sponsored schemes and schemes under Bharat Nirman and National Flagship Programs are not included in the P.M's new 15 Point Program. Such as –
A) Under enhancing opportunities of education, only ICDS, SSA and KGBVs are included while Mid-Day Meal Scheme, strengthening of Teacher Training Institutes, Mahila Samakhya, National Mission for Female Literacy, support to NGOs for Adult Education and Skill Development, Merged Schemes of Literacy Campaign and Continuing Education, Jan Shikshan Sansthans, Scheme for Universal Access and Quality at Secondary Stage (SUCCESS), National Scheme for Incentive to girl child, Navodaya Vidyalayas, Kendriya Vidyalayas, New Model Schools, Sainik Schools, National Institute of Open Schooling, Rashtriya Madhyamik Shiksha Abhiyan (RMSA), Community Colleges, Top Class Education in Private/Un-aided Schools, Scheme for Settingup of 6000 Model Schools at Block level, Inclusive Education for disabled at Secondary Schools, National Means-Cum-Merit Scholarship Scheme (one lakh scholarships per year), Vocationalisation of Education, Community Polytechnics, Information and Communication Technology in Schools, Scheme for Construction and Running Girls Hostels for Secondary and Higher Secondary Students and at college level (2000 Girls Hostels with a unit cost of Rs. 1 crore will be provided in XI Plan out of which 300 Hostels must be for minorities), National Bal Bhavan, Institutes of Higher Education and Research, Establishment of Universities, Innovation in Science Pursuit for Inspired Research (INSPIRE) Scholarship Scheme (10,000 scholarships per year) Scholarship for continuing Science Education, National Knowledge Network, Fellowship for Research and Study in India and abroad (National Overseas Scholarships), Scholarship for college/university students (newly declared 82,000 scholarships), PG Indira Gandhi Scholarship Scheme (to single girl child students), CSIR Program on Youth for Leadership in Science, National Talent Search Exams, Student loans to Weaker Section (with full interest subsidy).
The benefits of all these schemes must be targeted for minorities with respect to their population and backwardness as being earmarked for SCs, STs and OBCs.
National Policy on Education (NPE) commits itself to provide all possible means for the uplift of the educationally backward minorities. The National Monitoring Committee for Minorities Education (NMCME) is constituted by the Ministry of HRD in 2004 to look into all aspects of education of minorities and suggest ways and means to improve the conditions for educational empowerment of minorities.
Madarsa Modernisation Programme has been revised by providing better salary to teachers, increased assistance for books, teaching aids and computers, introduction of vocational subjects. This Central Sponsored Scheme is Quality Improvement in Madarasa Education (SPQEM) with a budget provision of Rs. 325 crore in XI plan. It is targeted to cover 4500 to 6000 Madarsas.
In very few madarsas, the Government has extended its Mid-day Meal Scheme.
A new Centrally Sponsored Scheme of financial assistance for Infrastructure Development of privately managed Minority Schools (IDMI) has been launched with an outlay of Rs 125 Cr. in XI Plan.
Universalisation of Access to Quality Education at Secondary Stage (SUCCESS) has been approved. Setting up of new Jan Shikshan Sansthans (JSSs) is being incorporated in the revised scheme by the MHRD. Provision of more Girls Hostels in colleges and universities in Minority Concentrated Districts/Blocks is proposed under existing UGC scheme (as stated by Minister of MoMA in Rajya Sabha on 4th August, 2009) But the achievement of these schemes are not submitted by the Hon'ble Minister.
The Mid-day Meal Scheme has been extended to 3479 educationally backward blocks in 2007-08, out of which 564 blocks are of Muslim minority concentration, and the remaining 1228 Muslim concentration blocks were targeted to be covered during 2008-09.
Only 77 blocks with a high concentration of Muslims have been identified for establishing BITEs to impart Teachers Training.
Training of Urdu Medium Teacher for modern subjects is started only at AMU, JMI and MANUU, which did not cater the needs of thousands of Urdu Medium teachers for their professional development.
UGC, AICTE, NCTE, MCI, PCI, Dept. of School Education (MHRD) etc. must be asked to develop a comprehensive policy for fair share in various schemes for minorities.
The National Commission for Minority Educational Institutions (NCMEI) must have statutory powers so that it should effectively implement minorities rights to establish and administer educational institution of their choice and higher and technical educational institutions should get the direct affiliation with Central Universities without any local hurdles.
A total of 88 Minority Concentrated Districts would be covered under XI Plan of incentivising States to set up colleges in districts with lower than the National Gross Enrolment Ratio in higher education.
A new centrally sponsored scheme is proposed for assistance to polytechnics which ensures that each Muslim Minority Concentrated District has a polytechnic for which non-recurring expenditure is proposed to be made available. ( Press Release MHRD, dated 17th January, 2008).
To reduce the dropout rate among minorities, in built mechanism for upgrading educational needs of minorities like coaching classes/ remedial teaching must be provided in all schools/colleges. Still no sincere efforts are made to increase the access of minorities in educational institutions. Madarsa pass-outs must be recognised for admissions in formal University Degree Programs.
Elimination of religion based discrimination and harassment in educational institutions should be ensured by institutes by establishing Equal Opportunity Offices.
B) Under Equitable Share in Economic Activities and Employment, Schemes like Prime Ministers Employment Generation Program ( PMEGP), Skill Development Mission, Work Shed Schemes for artisans, Scheme for enhancing productivity and competitiveness for Khadi industries artisans, Weavers, Handloom Weavers Comprehensive Welfare Scheme, Skilled labours, Handicraft Artisans Comprehensive Welfare Scheme, Scholarships to aspiring Pilot Trainees etc. are not included. Minorities must be benefited by such activities. Special programmes of employment are very necessary to reduce the huge unemployment among minorities specially Muslims.
Priority needs to be given to Minorities in EGS with proper monitoring of coverage.
The labour force need to be provided with job oriented training under the Apprentice Act to enable them to have better job opportunities.
There is an urgent need to ensure upgradation of skills of minorities so that they can compete better in the market. Credit flow must be unhampered and easy to access, specially in occupations which have been the traditional forte of minority categories. A suitable marketing strategy needs to be worked out on the lines of TRIFED to market the products manufactured by Small Muslim Artisans.
NMDFC providing credit to minorities have been facing the problems of insufficient amount for disbursing loans. There is need to restructure the schemes so that they become more sustainable.
The corporation need to be thoroughly professinalised so that the programmes financed by them help develop entrepreneurial skills of the minority loanees. The strength and capability of NMDFC must be augmented. Minority students who can not continue their education after schooling be provided with vocational training/skill training programs in ITIs/Polytechnics. These institutions should have adequate seats on population basis and should be located closer to minority concentrated areas.
C) Under improving the conditions of living of minorities, only IAY, IHSDP and JNNURM are included.
Further, this new 15 point program for development of minorities do not include any welfare scheme for minorities youth and no provision is made to earmark the funds in any of the Health Scheme like National Food Security Mission, National Rural Health Mission (NRHM), National Vector Borne Disease Control Programme, National Program for control of Blindness, Revised National TB Control Program, National Leprosy Eradication Program, Immunisation, AIDS Control Program, Rashtriya Swasthya Bima Yojana, Aam Aadmi Bima Yojana, Integrated Child Protection Scheme, National Program for Elderly.
Under better infrastructure development, Rajiv Gandhi Grameen Vidyutikaran Yojana, Rajiv Gandhi Drinking Water Mission, Total Sanitation Campaign, Pradhan Mantri Gram Sadak Yojana (PMSGY), Pradhan Mantri Adarsh Gram Yojana (PMAGY), Pradhan Mantri Gramodaya Yojana (PMGY) are not included in the present P.M's new 15 point programme.
Recently in the end of October 2009, three schemes ; National Rural Drinking Water Programme (NRDWP), Urban Infrastructure Development Scheme for Small and Medium Towns (UIDSSMT) and Urban Infrastructure and Governance (UIG) are approved by Govt. of India for minority welfare.
Public distribution system has emerged as a poverty alleviation measure and has become a permanent feature in Indian Economy. All over the world, it has been understood that it is not the optimum levels of the production alone, but the levels of equitable distribution that can ensure maximum welfare of the largest population. Under public distribution system, the Government has adopted many welfare schemes by allocating and off taking the food grains such as rice and wheat e.g.
Mid Day Meal Scheme (MDM)
Scheme for supply of food grains to Hostels/Welfare Institutions.
Wheat Based Nutrition Programme (WBNP)
Sampoorna Gramin Rozgar Yojana (SGRY)
Nutritional Programme for Adolescent Girls (NPAG)
National Food for Work Programme (NFFWP)
Emergency Feeding Programme (EFP)
Except SGRY, in any of the above scheme, 15% targets are not earmarked for the deserving minorities, hence they are being marginalized by food security benefits.
Although the main objective of the Eleventh Five Year Plan is “Faster and More Inclusive Growth". This plan is designed to reduce poverty and focus on bridging the various divides that continue to fragment our society. Inclusive growth demands that all social groups have equal access to the services provided by the State.
But the P.M's New 15 Point Program seems to be failed to achieve the desired goal of XI Plan due to non inclusion of aforementioned National level development programs for benefiting the minorities.
The desired "inclusive growth" can be achieved by providing equal opportunities to minorities and all the welfare programmes must not be just suggestive in nature. The 15 % targets (with specific distribution among minorities as per their population) under all the central welfare schemes must be made mandatory.
Special component plan for Minorities just like that for SCs & STs can only solve this problem for which Minorities Budgeting Methodology must be followed in Union Budget.
As evident from the Sachar Committee, Muslims are far behind than the SCs, STs, OBCs and other minorities. The special Muslim Minorities Component Plan is the need of hour which must be implemented in forthcoming Five Year Plans. It must have the provisions for earmarking population proportionate funds in each Central Ministry and Department for the development of Muslims and other minorities as that provided for SCs, STs, OBCs.
A critical look on the achievements for 15% of the allocation earmarked for Minorities under various National level schemes reveals following findings;
1) The Integrated Child Development Services (ICDS) Scheme has budgetary allocation of Rs. 44,400 Cr. in XI Plan period. It's 15% means Rs. 6,660 Cr. must be utilised for minorities.
15% targeted for Minorities
(up to 31/8/2009)
In October 2008, the Government took a major initiative to universalize ICDS by increasing the number of Anganwadis to 14 lakh from 10 lakh. While expanding the scheme, focus has been given to SC/ST/Minorities dominated areas. 2.66 lakh number of Anganwadis were sanctioned under 3rd phase of expansion of ICDS in 2008-09, out of which 37,672 (14.13%) number of Angwanwadis are in 1228 identified CD Blocks where minority population is 25% and above including 10715 AWCs in 32 MCDs.
Hence, out of the total 13.56 lakh number of operational Anganwadi Centres, very few of them are operational for minorities (just 37,672). This scheme needs to be extended in all blocks having minority population 15% and above.
A micro level analysis must be performed to assess the further needs after universalization of ICDS in all habitation.
2) Under Sarva Shiksha Abhiyan (SSA) for the year 2008-09, according to HRD Ministry's report upto 31st December 2008, published on 12th May 2009, only 6,972 number of teachers were appointed against targeted sanctioned 21,945 posts ( 31% achievement ), out of total 1.07 lakh new teachers recruitment. In Minority concentrated 90 districts identified, 4,404 new primary schools were targeted for the construction, out of which only 3,226 schools were constructed while total 52,431 number of schools' construction was approved during 2008-09. 4,154 new upper primary schools were to be established, but 2,238 schools are started (53.87 % achievement). 1.75 lakh additional class rooms were approved for construction, out of which 21,102 were planned to be constructed for Minorities, but 14,142 additional class rooms were constructed ( 67.01 % achievement.) Apart from this, the report for the following targets is not published.
Construction of Toilets in 7,132 schools (it's 15% means 1,069 Minority schools) ; Providing Drinking Water Facilities in 24,399 schools ( 3,659 minority schools); Provision of Free Text Books to 8.97 Cr. students ( 1.34 Cr. minority students) ; School grant to 11.82 lakh schools (1.773 lakh minority schools); Teacher grant to 41.47 lakh teachers (6.22 lakh minority teachers @ Rs. 500/- per teacher ) ; School Building maintenance grant to 10.18 lakh schools (1.527 lakh minority schools) and Education Guarantee Scheme Centres Alternative and Innovative Education Facilities for 64.73 lakh children ( 9.70 lakh minority children).
In short, out of Rs. 13,100 crore allocated for SSA during 2008-09, Rs. 1,965 Cr. must have been utilized for minorities (15% share).
This report reveals the under achievements of various provisions / programs earmarked for minorities. Hence PM's New 15 Point Program for development of minorities is failed in letter and spirit.
Further, under 'Bharat Nirman' project dedicated to building a strong and prosperous India, in last four years, 2.4 lakh schools were opened (among which 0.36 lakh must be for minorities), 8 lakh teachers were appointed( 1.2 lakh must be teachers for minorities). Decision to establish 1000 polytechnics, means 150 polytechnics must be for minorities, 30 Central Universities, means 5 Universities must be in minority concentrated districts benefiting exclusively the minorities.
3) Kasturba Gandhai Balika Vidyalayas (KGBVs)
Total number of Muslim girls in 1226 operational KGBVs wre 4178 (5.17 %) out of the total girls enrolled i.e. 80880 as on 11th July, 2007.
Total number of girls enrolled in 2511 KGBVs are 1,91,123; out of which only 14,366 are muslim girls ( 7.52 % against 15% target) as on 15th July, 2009.
Out of the total 2,180 KGBVs sanctioned, only 266 are in Muslim populated blocks (over 20% Muslim population); 622 are in SC and 583 in ST populated Blocks.
4) Swarnjayanti Gram Swarazgar Yojana (SGSY) :
In a self employment program, 60,494 Swarozgaris belonging to the minorities were assisted in 2006-07 against the target of 1.63 lakh (37.1% achievement) out of a total of 10.91 lakh number of Swarozgaries targeted. This went up to 1.43 lakh Minority Rozgaris against the target of 2.02 lakh in 2007-08 (70.79% achievement). The target for assisting Minority Rozgaris has been fixed at 2.64 lakh in 2008-09, out of which 1.86 lakh Swarjogaris belonging to minorities were assisted ( 70.45% achievement) Total number of Swarjozgaris assisted in this scheme during the year 2008-09 were 18,61,875 out of which number of SHG and individual Swarjogaris achievement for minorities were 2,75,121 ( 14.78%) ( as per the annual report of Ministry of Rural Development).
But the online report available shows that 55887 number of minorities members of SHGs assisted out of total 509345 and 9873 number of minority individual swarozgaries assisted out of total 115377 during 2008-09 which become approximately 10% only.
Credit and subsidy disbursed to minorities in 2007-08 is Rs. 1,918.5 Cr. against total of Rs. 13,789.56 Cr. ( 13.91 % for minorities ), in 2008-09, Rs. 158.27 Cr. out of total Rs. 5,185 Cr. ( 3.05 % for minorities ). Number of minority swarozgaris assisted under special projects during 2007-08 are 6,535 out of total 28,82,151 ( just 0.22% for minorities) while in 2008-09, 5,148 out of total 22,37,374 ( just 0.23% for minorities). Number of Individual Minority Swarjogaris assisted for Economic Activities during 2007-08, 18,544 out of 2,44,628 ( 7.58% for minorities) and in 2008-09, 31,509 out of 2,93,207 ( 10.74% for minorities). Number of Minority Self Help Groups assisted for economic activities during 2007-08 are 1,19,207 out of total 11,45,056 (10.41% for minorities) and in 2008-09, 1,53,472 out of 13,45,800 (11.40% for minorities).
5) Swarnjayanti Shahri Swarozgar Yojana (SJSRY)
15% of physical and financial targets regarding assistance for micro enterprises and skill training under SJSRY have been earmarked to minorities. 15,933 beneficiaries from minorities were assisted for skill training against 22539 targeted out of the total 1.5 lakh in 2006-07. In 2007-08, the achievements rose substantially to 41,466. While in 2008-09, upto end of December, 13,742 were the beneficiaries among minorities. For the year 2008-09, an outlay of Rs. 540.67 crores has been approved for the scheme, of which Rs. 81 Cr. must be utilised for minorities. RBI circular dated 12th Oct. 2009 restricts Branch Manager of Banks not to reject the applications of SCs, STs. Higher official than the Branch Manager can reject the application. The reason of rejection may also be communicated to sponsoring agency. Similar measures are required for minorities to get the fair benefit from SJSRY.
6) Sampoorna Gramin Razgar Yojana (SGRY): Under the employment generation program of SGRY, Rs. 29,091.55 crores were earmarked during 2006-07 for works benefiting the minorities, out of which Rs. 1,922.26 Cr. ( i.e. 6.6% ) were utilised. During 2007-08, against earmarked allocation of Rs. 16,056.02 Crores for minorities, works for a total amount of Rs. 3,970.97 Cr. (i.e. 24.7%) had benefited the minorities (upto Dec.'2007). After the promulgation of the National Rural Employment Guarantee Act, the SGSR program had subsumed with NREGS in the initial 330 districts where the Act is in operation.
During the year 2008-09, total budget for this scheme is Rs. 12,040 Crore, for benefiting minorities; Rs. 1,806 Cr. must be allocated.
7) Scheme to improve representation of Minorities in Govt. Services: Revised guidelines to improve the representation of minorities in Govt. Services ( Central & State ) and Public Sector undertakings have been issued by the Department of Personnel & Training on 8th January 2007.
On 4th August, 2009, Govt. has said that, statistics of Employment of Minority Community persons, including Muslims, in the Central Government Services is not maintained on the basis of particular religion, but for all the five minorities as a whole.
The number of persons belonging to the minority communities recruited during last three years in the various Ministries/Departments and their organisations are given below;
2006-07 - 12,182 minority persons (6.95% of the total recruited)
2007-08 - 12,195 minority persons (8.65% of the total recruited)
2008-09 - 4,479
As per information published on 6th August 2009, the minority share in 2008-09 has risen in PSUs and Central Ministries and Departments, but it has dipped in public sector banks and financial institutions. The recruitment of minorities in Banks and Financial Institutions last year was 8.86%, down from 10.19% in 2007-08. While in Central Ministries/Departments it was 9.42% increased from previous year. In PSU, 7.56% minorities were recruited.
Unfortunately, the percentage of minority candidates being selected/recruited in various State departments is still 2-3% (e.g. in Maharashtra Police Services).
However, Ministry of Railways has recently declared that the forthcoming recruitment exams will be conducted in regional languages and Urdu, definitely it will help to improve the representation of Muslims in Railways, likewise Staff Selection Exams, Defence Services Exams, Banking Services Exams, Police Recruitment Exams and other State competitive exams must also be conducted in the regional as well as Urdu languages.
8) Upgradation of Skills through technical training: Establishment of New ITIs and their upgradation into Centres of Excellence.
As per the targets envisaged under the P.M's 15 point program i.e. 15% of benefits/targets should be earmarked for minorities, Accordingly 60 ITIs out of 400 ITIs proposed for the upgradation under the project have been identified in the Minority Concentrated Districts (MCDs). Hence the physical targets are fully (100%) achieved.
But, the number of minority candidates getting benefited from these centers for upgradation of their skills is not reported by the Ministry of Labour and Employment, vide its letter dated 8th May 2009 addressed to the Ministry of Minority Affairs.
Further, Directorate General of Employment and Training, New Delhi has launched a Modular Employable Skills (MES) under Skill Development Initiative Scheme and it is also implementing Craftsman Training Scheme through ITIs/ITCs. But unfortunately, 15% target for minorities are not earmarked for minorities in these schemes although it is the focused activity in P.M's 15 Point Program.
9) Enhanced Credit Support for Economic Activities: All public sector banks have been directed to open more branches in districts having a substantial minority population. In 2007-08, 523 and in 2008-09 524 branches were opened in such districts.
Reserve Bank of India (RBI) have revised the Master Circular on priority sector lending on 5th July' 2007. Public Sector banks have been directed to step up lending to minorities from 9% to 15% over the next three years i.e. 2007-08 to 2009-10. Rs. 58,662.67 crores of priority sectors lending, which was 9.67% of total priority sector lending, was disbursed to minorities in 2007-08. The target for 2008-09 was 13.00% of the total with an amount of Rs. 86,774 Cr. out of which Rs. 82,864 Cr. were provided to minorities under priority sector lending during 2008-09.
Lead Banks are advised to earmark 15% targets for minorities in District Credit Plans. District Consultative Committees (DCCs) of Lead Banks have been directed to regularly monitor disposal and rejection of loan applications from minorities.
In pursuance of the RBI's circular dated 1st July 2009, each Bank must create a special cell for minorities headed by an officer of the rank of DGM or AGM, functioning as a 'Nodal Officer'. In each Minority Concentrated District, each lead bank must have an officer to look after the problems regarding the credit flow to minorities exclusively.
A wide publicity of various program of Bank Credit and preparing suitable new schemes for minorities is desired.
10) Improving the conditions of living of Minorities:
Indira Awas Yojana (IAY): Under IAY, 14,236 BPL families belonging to the minorities were assisted for construction of pucca houses against the 2.3 lakh units earmarked for minorities in 2006-07 (6.18% achievement). During 2007-08, out of the 3.19 lakh dwelling units earmarked for minorities, 1.55 lakh units (48.58%) were constructed for minorities. Whereas in 2008-09, 3.19 lakh housing units were earmarked for minorities out of which 1.75 lakh dwelling units were constructed (54.85% achievement).
Providing houses to the poorest has a positive impact on citizen’s physical and mental health. Once, the basic need of housing is fulfilled, citizens develop a sense of opportunity for livelihood, for improving living conditions and for continuing children's education. Hence, IAY Scheme must be implemented in total for the targeted minorities.
11) Improvement in conditions of Slums inhabited by minorities Integrated Housing and Slum Development Program (IHSDP); Basic Services for Urban Poor (BSUP) and Jawaharlal Nehru National Urban Renovation Mission (JNNURM).
34.98% of project cost for BSUP and 17.8% of project cost for IHSDP approved for cities/towns with substantial minority population. Under IHSDP, total 14.41 lakh houses are sanctioned during 2008-09, 1289 projects with an outlay of Rs. 33,652.29 Cr. It's 15% means 2.16 lakh houses must have been sanctioned for minorities.
Under Urban Infrastructure Development Scheme for Small and Medium Towns (UIDSSMT), additional central assistance of Rs. 1,602.2 Cr. has been sanctioned for 69 towns having substantial minority population, out of which Rs. 659.37 Cr. was released in 2008-09. (Information given by Hon'ble Minister for Minority Affairs, in Rajya Sabha in a written reply on 4th August, 2009). while Ministry of Urban Development Annual Report 2008-09 mentions that, in respect of 251 identified Minority Concentration Towns, 100 projects with project cost of Rs. 2,528.57 Cr. have been covered under UIDSSMT and Rs. 1,228.55 crore of ACA has been released.
Recently in October, 2009, new schemes like National Rural Drinking Water Program (NRDWP), Urban Infrastructure and Governance (UIG) are approved by the Indian Government that would provide better drinking and infrastructure facilities in minority concentrated areas. (Courtesy: www.ummid.com)
---Dr M.A. Baseer teaches at Yeshwant Mahavidyalaya, Nanded-431602